Taught in French, this course is based on the achievements of anthropology to identify the foundations of economic practice as well as the theoretical problems it poses. Whether it is the market, credit or investment, economic institutions and practices are historical inventions. A better understanding of these requires analyzing the process by which the universe, which we call "economy", was constituted. It is about reintegrating economic behavior into human behavior. An economy that positively affects living things and meets the needs of human communities must rethink the foundations of the theory of value and exchange.