Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Romance Studies

External address: 106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal address: Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Phone: (919) 684-3408
Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Foreword.” Another World Is Possible: Popular Alternatives to Globalization at the World Social Forum, edited by William Fisher and Thomas Ponniah, Zed Books, 2003, pp. xvi–xix.

Hardt, M. “Gemeinschaftseigentum.” Singularitäten – Allianzen, Institut für Theorie der Gestaltung und Kunst, 2002, pp. 61–84.

Hardt, M. “Un’Europa aperta al mondo.” Europa Politica: Ragioni Di Una Necessità, edited by Hedrun Friese et al., Manifestolibri, 2002, pp. 159–66.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Globalization and Democracy.” Democracy Unrealized: Documenta 11, edited by Okwui Enwezor, Hatje Cantz, 2002, pp. 323–36.

Hardt, M. Il brulichio. Rome: Manifestolibri, 2002, pp. 151–55.

Hardt, M. “Il brulichio.” Diario Palestinese, edited by M. POSSE, Manifestolibri, 2002, pp. 151–55.

Hardt, M. “Impero.” Lessico Postfordista, edited by Adelino Zanini and Ubaldo Fadini, Feltrinelli, 2001, pp. 167–71.

Hardt, M. “Internazionalismo e comunicazione.” Il Manifesto Del Partito Comunista 150 Anni Dopo, edited by Rossana Rossandra, Manifestolibri, 2000, pp. 287–93.

Hardt, M. “Keywords.” New Media Logbook (Kunst.NRW.NL Festival Document), Kunst.nrw.nl, 1999, pp. 62–63.

Hardt, M. “Laboratory Italy.” Radical Thought in Italy, edited by Michael Hardt and Paolo Virno, University of Minnesota Press, 1996, pp. 1–10.


Hardt, Michael. “For Love or Money.” Cultural Anthropology, vol. 26, no. 4, Nov. 2011, pp. 676–82. Manual, doi:10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01119.x. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Note from the editor.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 110, no. 4, Sept. 2011. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-1382348. Full Text

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “La costituzione del comune e le ragioni della sinistra.” Micromega, Aug. 2011, pp. 16–27.

Hardt, M. “Note from the editor.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 110, no. 3, June 2011. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-1275761. Full Text

Hardt, M. “The Militancy of Theory.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 110, no. 1, Jan. 2011, pp. 19–35. Manual, doi:10.1215/00382876-2010-020. Full Text

Hardt, M., et al. “Interview.” The White Review, no. 2, 2011.

Hardt, M., et al. “No One is Sovereign in Love.” No More Potlucks, no. 18, 2011.

Hardt, M. “The common in communism.” Rethinking Marxism, vol. 22, no. 3, July 2010, pp. 346–56. Scopus, doi:10.1080/08935696.2010.490365. Full Text

Hardt, M., and A. Negri. “Editors' introduction.” Rethinking Marxism, vol. 22, no. 3, July 2010, pp. 296–302. Scopus, doi:10.1080/08935696.2010.490332. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Two Faces of Apocalypse: A Letter from Copenhagen.” Polygraph, vol. 22, 2010, pp. 265–74. Open Access Copy


Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “What To Expect in 2012.” Adbusters, Dec. 2011.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “The Fight for 'Real Democracy'.” Foreign Affairs Magazine Blog, 11 Oct. 2011.

Hardt, M. “Real Democracy: An Interview with Michael Hardt.” Shift Magazine, Oct. 2011.

Hardt, M., and Iman Ganji. “Fra Seattle til Kairo.” Morgenbladet, 28 May 2011, pp. 35–35.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Arabs are Democracy's New Pioneers.” The Guardian, 25 Feb. 2011, pp. 34–34.

Hardt, M. “No One is Sovereign in Love.” No More Potlucks, vol. 18, 2011.

Hardt, M. “Art, Politics, and Love.” Common Love, 2011, pp. 95–101.

Hardt, M. “Da occupywallstreet a occupyeverywhere.” Global Project Website, 2011.

Hardt, M. “L'erreur d'orientation des campus américains.” Libération, 2 Dec. 2010.