Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Romance Studies

External address: 106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal address: Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Phone: (919) 684-3408
Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hight, Christopher, and Michael Hardt. “Designing Commonspaces: Riffing with Michael Hardt on the Multitude and Collective Intelligence.” Architectural Design, vol. 76, no. 5, Sept. 2006, pp. 70–73. Manual, doi:10.1002/ad.325. Full Text

Hardt, M. “From Imperialism to Empire.” The Nation, vol. 283, no. 4, July 2006, pp. 26–26.

Tsuda, Kenta, and Michael Hardt. “Welcoming the Multitude.” The Brown Journal of World Affairs, vol. 13, no. 1, 2006, pp. 11–18.

Hardt, M. “Second Empire; Or, The Eighteenth Brumaire of George W. Bush.” Radical History Review, vol. 2006, no. 95, 2006, pp. 89–92. Manual, doi:10.1215/01636545-2006-95-89. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Immaterial labor and artistic production.” Rethinking Marxism, vol. 17, no. 2, Jan. 2005, pp. 175–77. Scopus, doi:10.1080/08935690500046637. Full Text

Hardt, M. “La rivoluzione permanente negli affari militari.” Posse, vol. 10, Manifestolibri: Rome, Italy, 2005.

Hardt, M. “Flesh exposure of Pasolini.” Multitudes, vol. 18, no. 4, Dec. 2004, pp. 159–67. Scopus, doi:10.3917/mult.018.0159. Full Text

Hardt, M., and T. Negri. “Multitude: War and democracy in the Empire era - Good selections.” Multitudes, vol. 18, no. 4, Dec. 2004, pp. 107–17. Scopus, doi:10.3917/mult.018.0107. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Collective Tyranny.” Arab Journal for the Humanities, vol. 22, no. 88, Kuwait University, 2004, pp. 279–85.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Why We Need a Multilateral Magna Carta.” Global Agenda: The Magazine of the World Economic Forum’S Annual Meeting, vol. 2, 2004, pp. 76–77.


Hardt, M., and Anna Curcio. “Rappresentanza vs differenza.” Carta, vol. 10, no. 35, 26 Sept. 2008, pp. 54–55.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Mot Imperiet och Herrarna.” Dagens Nyheter, 21 Sept. 2008, pp. 6–7.

Hardt, M. “A New Cycle of Struggles.” Shukan Kinyobi, no. 707, 20 June 2008, pp. 10–13.

Kohso, S. Toward a Revolutionary Theory of the Common. Vol. 3, no. 1, Ibunsha, 2008, pp. 2–15.

Hardt, M. “Ne Darbo Islaisvinimas, O Issilaisvinimas Nuo Darbo!.Juodrastis (Lithuania), vol. 1, no. 1, 2008, pp. 28–32.

Hardt, M., and Robert Eikmeyer. “Die Erfindung eines neuen politischen Vokabulars.” Remarx, 2007.

Schwartz, L. “Talking into Being.” Rain Taxi, vol. 12, no. 3, 2007, pp. 50–52.

Eikmeyer, R. “Interview.” Online Journal Remarx, 2007.

Favaro, Adriano, and Michael Hardt. “Anche l’amore contro l’impero del biopotere.” Il Gazzettino, 10 Dec. 2006.

Hight, Christopher, and Michael Hardt. “Designing Commonspaces.” Architectural Design, Sept. 2006.