Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Romance Studies

External address: 106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal address: Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Phone: (919) 684-3408
Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Barchiesi, F., et al. “Porto Alegre: The work of multitudes.” Multitudes, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan. 2002, pp. 5–14. Scopus, doi:10.3917/mult.008.0005. Full Text

Hardt, M., et al. “Subterranean Passages of Thought: Empire’s Inserts.” Cultural Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, 2002, pp. 193–212.

Hardt, M., and A. Negri. “Adventures of the multitude: Response of the authors.” Rethinking Marxism, vol. 13, no. 3–4, Jan. 2001, pp. 236–43. Scopus, doi:10.1080/089356901101241929. Full Text

Hardt, M., and A. Negri. “Biopolitical production.” Multitudes, vol. 1, no. 1, Dec. 2000, pp. 16–28. Scopus, doi:10.3917/mult.001.0016. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Guaranteed Income, or, The Separation of Labor from Income.” Hybrid: Journal of Law and Social Change, vol. 5, University of Pennsylvania Law School, 2000, pp. 21–32.

Hardt, M., and Tom Dumm. “Sovereignty, Multitudes, Absolute Democracy.” Theory and Event, vol. 4, no. 3, 2000.

Hardt, M. “Introduction.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, vol. 19, no. 2, Duke University Press, Sept. 1999, pp. 41–42. Crossref, doi:10.1215/1089201x-19-2-41. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Affective Labor.” Boundary2, vol. 26, no. 2, Jan. 1999, pp. 89–100.

Hardt, M. “The Global Society of Control.” Discourse, vol. 20, no. 3, 1998, pp. 139–52.

Hardt, M. “Exposure: Pasolini in the Flesh.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, vol. 24, no. 3, Sept. 1997, pp. 579–87.


Burdick, K., and A. Mastrogiovanni. “On Global Democracy.” Bard Politik: The Bard Journal of Global Affairs, 2003, pp. 30–34.

Maffezzini, I. “Après Empire.” Conjunctures (Quebec), vol. 36 & 37, 2003, pp. 15–30.

Böhnel, M., and V. Lehmann. “Versallen am Hofe Bushs.” American Empire – No Thank You: Andere Stimmen Aus Amerika, 2003, pp. 75–90.

Budgen, S., and A. Colás. “Interview.” Historical Materialism, vol. 11, no. 3, Brill Academic Publishers, 2003, pp. 121–52.

Hardt, M. “On Global Democracy.” Dagens Nyheter Newspaper (Sweden), 30 Dec. 2002.

Veroli, N., and C. Mudede. “Challenging Empire.” Radical Society, vol. 29, no. 4, Dec. 2002, pp. 59–73.

Hardt, M. “Une conception non libérale du pluralisme.” Magazine Littéraire, no. 406, Feb. 2002, pp. 51–51.

Hardt, M. “On Empire and Cant: A Response to Mitchell Cohen.” Dissent, 2002, pp. 107–08.

Hardt, M. “Ett verkligt krig mot en overklig fiende.” Dagens Nyheter Newspaper, 2002, pp. B2–3.