Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Romance Studies

External address: 106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal address: Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Phone: (919) 684-3408
Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.


  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990
  • M.A., University of Washington 1986
  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. Assembly. Oxford University Press, 2017.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. Declaration. Argo Navis (self-published), 2012.

Hardt, M. The Procedures of Love. Vol. 13, Documenta, 2012.

Hardt, M. The Procedures of Love. Vol. 13, Documenta, 2012.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. Commonwealth. Harvard University Press, 2009.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. Multitude. Penguin Press, 2004.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. Empire. Harvard University Press, 2000.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. Labor of Dionysus: A Critique of the State-Form. University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Hardt, M. Gilles Deleuze: An Apprenticeship in Philosophy. University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. “24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep.” Artforum International, vol. 52, no. 1, Sept. 2013, pp. 77–78.

Hardt, M., and J. Holloway. “Creating commonwealth and cracking capitalism: a cross-reading (part 1).” Bajo El Volcán, translated by M. Hardt, vol. 11, no. 18, Mar. 2012, pp. 121–41.

Hardt, M., and John Holloway. “Creating Commonwealth and Cracking Capitalism: A Cross-Reading (Part 1).” Shift Magazine, vol. 14, Jan. 2012, pp. 13–17.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Response to David Harvey’s Review of "Commonwealth".” Artforum International, Nov. 2009, pp. 211–15.

Hardt, M. “Capitalist Violence (Review of Naomi Klein's "The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism").” New Left Review, vol. 48, Nov. 2007, pp. 153–60.

Hardt, M. “The Collective Project for a Global Commons (Review of Naomi Klein's "No Logo").” New Formations, vol. 45, 2004, pp. 223–24.


Lanteri, A., and J. Vromen. Introduction. 2013, pp. 1–8. Scopus, doi:10.1017/CBO9781139059145.001. Full Text

Hardt, M. “The Procedures of Love.” More Love, edited by C. Schneider, Ackland Art Museum, 2013, pp. 161–65.

Hardt, M, M. “"Alte Verträge" und die gesellschaftliche Macht des Rheingoldes.” Götterdämmerung, Bayerische Staatsoper at Nationalstheater München, 2012, pp. 52–62.

The Procedures of Love.” The Book of Books, 2012, pp. 430–31.

Hardt, M. “Creation Beyond Measure.” The Labor of Job by Antonio Negri, Duke University Press, 2009, pp. vii–xv.

Hardt, M. “Three Keys to Understanding Constituent Power.” Insurgencies by Antonio Negri, University of Minnesota Press, 2009, pp. vii–xiii.

Hardt, M. “Production and Distribution of the Common.” Being an Artist in Post-Fordist Times, edited by P. Gielen and P. de Bruyne, NAi Publishers, 2009, pp. 45–54.

Hardt, M. “Revolution.” Examined Life: Excursions with Contemporary Thinkers, edited by A. Taylor, 2009, pp. 133–54.

Mitzi, D. B. Preface. 2008. Scopus, doi:10.1002/9780470407790. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Language at Work.” Capital and Language, edited by Christian Marazzi, Semiotext(e), 2008, pp. 7–11.


Metz, A., et al. “From social worker to social ship owner: Interview with Alessandro Metz.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 119, no. 1, Jan. 2020, pp. 176–81. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-8007865. Full Text

Hardt, M., and S. Mezzadra. “Introduction: Migrant projects of freedom.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 119, no. 1, Jan. 2020, pp. 168–75. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-8007853. Full Text

Hardt, M., and T. Negri. “The multiplicities within capitalist rule and the articulation of struggles.” Triplec, vol. 16, no. 2, May 2018, pp. 440–48. Scopus, doi:10.31269/triplec.v16i2.1025. Full Text

Hardt, M., and T. Negri. “The powers of the exploited and the social ontology of praxis.” Triplec, vol. 16, no. 2, May 2018, pp. 415–23. Scopus, doi:10.31269/triplec.v16i2.1024. Full Text

Hardt, M., and S. Mezzadra. “October! to commemorate the future.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 116, no. 4, Oct. 2017, pp. 649–68. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-4234939. Full Text

Hardt, M. “Red love.” South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 116, no. 4, Oct. 2017, pp. 781–96. Scopus, doi:10.1215/00382876-4235005. Full Text

Hardt, Michael. “MANAGING UP.” Artforum International, vol. 56, no. 2, Oct. 2017, pp. 229–31.

Hardt, M. “Multiple temporalities of the movements.” Triplec, vol. 15, no. 2, Jan. 2017, pp. 390–92. Scopus, doi:10.31269/triplec.v15i2.888. Full Text

Hardt, M. “The Power to be Affected.” International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, vol. 28, no. 3, Sept. 2015, pp. 215–22. Scopus, doi:10.1007/s10767-014-9191-x. Full Text

Hardt, M. “How to Write with Four Hands.” Genre, vol. 46, no. 2, June 2013, pp. 175–82. Manual, doi:10.1215/00166928-2088007. Full Text


Hardt, M., and G. Farred. “Theory Now.” Saq: The South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. 11, no. 1, Duke University Press, 2011.

Hardt, M., et al. “Un’alternativa in cerca di autori.” Il Manifesto, 10 Sept. 2013.

Hardt, M., and Uira Machado. “Protestos recusam representação política por uma "democracia real", diz professor dos EUA.” Fohla De São Paulo, 4 July 2013.

Kornblatt, I. “Interview.” Swarthmore Review, vol. 1, no. 2, May 2013, pp. 19–21.

Hardt, M. “Preoccupying: Michael Hardt.” The Occupied Times of London, no. 21, May 2013, pp. 12–13.

Hardt, M. “Wall Street, War Street, Debt Machine.” Tidal: Occupy Theory, vol. 4, 2013, pp. 18–19.

Ariadad, S. “Interview.” Brand, no. 1, 2013, pp. 21–23.

Hardt, M., and M. Praktyka Teoretyczna Collective. “Communism is the Ruthless Critique of All that Exists.” Uninnomade, 3 Dec. 2012.

Hardt, M. “La seconda volta di Obama.” Alfabeta, vol. 3, no. 25, Dec. 2012, pp. 2–2.

Hardt, M., and Leonard Schwartz. “Love as Such.” The Conversant, Dec. 2012.

Hardt, M., et al. “Even When You Don’t See It, It’s Still There.” Commons.Fi, Dec. 2012.


After Empire. Writer. (2012)